Heat-activated FBS: What is it?
For both routine cell culture and particular research applications, Fetal Bovine Serum - Premium, Heat Inactivated is a low-endotoxin, low-hemoglobin FBS that offers exceptional value. FBS of the highest quality is frequently utilised and exhibits great performance with a variety of cell types.
What is the purpose of heat inactivation of FBS?
Heat inactivation aims to eliminate complement activity in serum without damaging the product's growth-promoting properties. Most cell cultures do not require the removal of complement activity from the serum, but cultures that are sensitive to the activity could need it.
Why is serum heated?
Numerous immunological components, including serum complement, which under certain circumstances may inhibit or kill cells, are present in adult serum. The goal of heating serum is to deactivate serum complement.
How hot should your heat inactivate FBS?
FBS is kept at a temperature of 56° for 30 minutes as part of the heat inactivation (HI) process.
What happens if you scorch heat to inactivate FBS?
The efficacy of the serum will be negatively impacted by heating it for more than 30 minutes or to a temperature greater than 56°C, and this will almost certainly result in more cryo-precipitate forming.
Goal of heat inactivated FBS
The goal is to neutralise any complement system components found in FBS as well as other potential unidentified cell growth inhibitors. Before, mycoplasma contamination was also meant to be removed by heat-inactivation, but this is no longer a concern because all serum products are now filtered through pores tiny enough to do away with mycoplasma. It should be emphasised that heat-inactivation could also have unintended consequences, such as lowering cultivated cells' capacity to adhere to surfaces.
For the majority of cell culture needs, several vendors have advised customers against heat-inactivating FBS. Since various cells react differently to the heat-inactivation of FBS, it is always advisable to assess if heat inactivation is necessary for a given application
How does FBS Help The Cell To Survive?
FBS has several different applications. FBS has numerous crucial nutrients and growth factors that help cells survive and proliferate in eukaryotic cell culture, where it is used at concentrations of up to 20 per cent or even more. Notably, FBS in human cell cultures has the potential to introduce research artefacts; human cells cultured with human sera exhibit distinct behaviours from those cultured with FBS. It is utilised in the development, production, and control of human and veterinary vaccinations as well as biotech pharmaceuticals. Serum-free cell culture mediums have been in use for a long time.
What is the purpose of bovine foetal serum?
After blood is extracted from a cow foetus, it coagulates, leaving behind FBS. It is the serum supplement that is most frequently used for in vitro cell culture (for eukaryotic cells). It also has uses in stem cell research and is crucial for the study of both human and animal vaccinations.
Steps of Heating the Serum
· Charcoal therapy
These serum lipid hormones frequently obstruct insulin detection techniques and immunoassay platforms. Tumour cell growth in culture conditions supplemented with 10% charcoal-stripped serum was measured by L Zhao et al.
All compounds in FBS with a molecular weight of less than 10,000 MW can be eliminated through dialysis. Both polar and non-polar molecules fall within this category. The removal of hormones, cytokines, carbohydrates, amino acids, and numerous other substances. Antibiotics and other foreign compounds in FBS are also eliminated by dialysis.
Sterilization of FBS may involve gamma irradiation. To remove bacteria, FBS is typically filtered through 0.1 um filters several times. The viruses frequently seen in bovine species can be rendered inactive by gamma radiation. However, some viral species, like the parvovirus, are gamma-irradiation resistant.
· Poor IGG
Even while the IGG content of FBS is fairly low, it can still be too high for some applications. By using capture chromatography, the IgG level can be further, significantly lowered. For the creation of recombinant proteins, the generation of antibodies, and other uses, FBS with low IgG is employed.
Culture Of Stem Cells
There are strict growth factor requirements for stem cell cultivation. Some of the growth factors in FBS encourage the development of stem cells. Numerous businesses provide FBS suited for maintaining undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. It's crucial to evaluate particular FBS lots to see if they can sustain the totipotency or pluripotency of various stem cell types.
So to conclude, the immune analysis of SARS-CoV2 antibodies is hampered by the 30-minute heat inactivation of serum at 56°C. If the sample was inactivated by heating, the likelihood of false-negative results should be taken into account for highly suspected cases. Additionally, the heat inactivation procedure must be carried out carefully, just like all other protocols using FBS, because overheating or extended heating will inactivate growth factors and produce precipitates